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ترڠڬانو دار الإيما Terengganu Darul Iman
State Flag Coat of Arms
State motto: no State motto
Capital Kuala Terengganu
Sultan Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
Chief Minister Dato' Idris Jusoh
Area 12,955 km2
 - Est year 2000

State anthem Terengganu State Anthem

Terengganu (Jawi: ترڠڬانو, formerly spelled Trengganu) is a state of Malaysia. It is located on the north-eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia, bordered on the north and west by Kelantan, the south by Pahang, and the east by the South China Sea. The Pulau Perhentian are also a part of the state. The state has a total area of 12,955 sq. km.

The ethnic composition in 1995 was: Malay (859,402 or 94%), Chinese (42,970 or 5%), Indian (4,355), Others (3,238).

The coastal city of Kuala Terengganu, at the mouth of the broad Terengganu River, is both the state and royal capital and is the largest city in Terengganu.

The state is also known by its Arabic honorific, Darul Iman ("Abode of Faith").



Terengganu's location by the South China Sea ensured that it was on trade routes since ancient times. The earliest written reports on the area that is now Terengganu were by Chinese merchant seamen in the early centuries A.D. Like other Malay states, Terengganu practiced a HinduBuddhist culture combined with animist traditional beliefs for hundreds of years before the arrival of Islam. Under the influence of Srivijaya, Terengganu also traded extensively with the Majapahit Empire, the Khmer and the Chinese. Terengganu was perhaps the first Malay state to receive Islam, as attested to by a stone monument dated 1303 with Arabic inscriptions found in Kuala Berang, the capital of the district of Ulu (upriver) Terengganu. Terengganu became a vassal state of Melaka, but retained considerable autonomy with the emergence of Riau-Johor.

Terengganu emerged as an independent sultanate in 1724. The first Sultan was Tun Zainal Abidin, the younger brother of a former sultan of Johor, and Johor strongly influenced Terengganu politics through the 18th century. In the 19th century, Terengganu became a vassal state of Siam, and sent tribute every year to the Emperor of Siam in the form of bunga mas (a tree with flowers and leaves made of gold). Under Siamese rule, Terengganu prospered, and was largely left alone by the authorities in Bangkok. The terms of the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 saw power over Terengganu transfered from Siam to Great Britain. A British Resident was installed after considerable reluctance in 1919, and Terengganu become one of the Unfederated Malay States. The move was highly unpoplar locally, and in 1928 the British used military force to suppress a popular uprising. During World War II, Japan transferred Terengganu back to Siam, along with Kelantan, Kedah, and Perlis, but after the defeat of Japan, these Malay states returned to British control.Terengganu became a member of the Federation of Malaya in 1948, and a state of independent Malaya in 1957.

In 1999, following decades of rule by UMNO—the senior partner in the Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition —the Islamic Party of Malaysia (PAS) won the 1999 local election, making Terengganu the second state in Malaysia to be ruled by PAS (the first being neighboring Kelantan). However, in the general election of 2004 Terengganu was recaptured by UMNO.

The hereditary Sultan of Terengganu since 1998 has been Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, who is concurrently Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. The Chief Executive or Menteri Besar is currently Dato' Idris Jusoh of Barisan Nasional, a businessman.


One of Terengganu's main industries is now petroleum. There are huge petrochemical complexes near Paka and Kijal, involving many joint ventures between the Malaysian national oil company, Petronas, and foreign multinationals. Tourism and fishing are also major industries in Terengganu, a state with a long coastline. Agriculture also remains important, with banana, rambutan, durian, watermelon, and various other fruits and vegetables available in season. Terengganu was traditionally famous for boat-building, with highly decorated carved wooden boats called bangau to be found in the harbor of every village and town in days not so long gone by, before electric motorboats became standard equipment for the state's fishermen.

Culture and attractions

Terengganu did not receive many Indian or Chinese migrants, and therefore Malay cultural influences predominate. Traditional pursuits such as kite-flying contests, top-spinning contests, and traditional arts & crafts, such as batik and songket are still very much alive. Terengganu has always had a reputation for being socially conservative and deeply Islamic in religion.

The most famous local food is Keropok Lekor, which is made primarily from a combination of dough and pounded fish, fried and served with hot sauce.

The major tourist attractions include: Kuala Terengganu, the capital; Tasik Kenyir, a large artificial lake; and several offshore islands such as Pulau Redang, Pulau Lang Tengah, and Pulau Kapas, and the Pulau Perhentian, which attract beachgoers and snorkelers.

External links

States and Federal Territories of Malaysia Flag of Malaysia
States: Johor | Kedah | Kelantan | Malacca | Negeri Sembilan | Pahang | Perak | Perlis | Penang | Sabah | Sarawak | Selangor | Terengganu
Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur | Labuan | Putrajaya
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