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For other uses, see Shah (disambiguation).

The King of Kings or Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian or Indo-European word khshathra-pava ("king"), and popularly referred to as "satrap" by the Greeks, is the term for a Persian monarch and was used by the former rulers of Persia and the Persian Empire. The title roughly translates as Emperor in English as the monarch of Persia was technically the Emperor of the Persian Empire (later the Empire of Iran, as Iran was officially known until 1935).

The last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Shâhanshâh ("Emperor", literally "King of Kings") during his coronation. He also styled his wife شاهبانو Shahbânu ("Empress"). The title Shâhanshâh was adopted from Iranians (Persians) by the Ottomans for a great hero or Emperor.

The English words check, checkmate (with the semitic root "mata" – to die) and chess are all derived from "Shah".

See also

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