Congress of Vienna

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The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from October 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815. Its purpose was to redraw the continent's political map after the defeat of Napoleonic France the previous spring.

The discussions continued despite the ex-Emperor Napoleon I's return from exile and resumption of power in France in March 1815, and the Congress's Final Act was signed nine days before his final defeat at Waterloo. Technically, one might note that the "Congress of Vienna" never actually occurred, as the Congress never met in plenary session, with most of the discussions occurring in informal sessions among the Great Powers.

The Congress was concerned with determining the entire shape of Europe after the Napoleonic wars, with the exception of the terms freedom of peace with France, which had already been decided by the Treaty of Paris, signed a few months earlier, on May 30, 1814.



At the Congress, the United Kingdom was represented first by its Foreign Secretary, the Viscount Castlereagh; after February 1815, by the Duke of Wellington; and in the last weeks, after Wellington left to meet Napoleon, by the Earl of Clancarty. Austria was represented by Prince Klemens von Metternich, the Foreign Minister, and by his deputy, Baron Wessenberg. Prussia was represented by Prince Karl August von Hardenberg, the Chancellor, and the diplomat and scholar Wilhelm von Humboldt. Louis XVIII's France was represented by its foreign minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord. Although Russia's official delegation was led by the foreign minister, Count Nesselrode, Emperor Alexander I for the most part acted on his own behalf. Initially, the representatives of the four victorious powers hoped to exclude the French from serious participation in the negotiations, but Talleyrand managed to skillfully insert himself into their inner councils in the first weeks of the negotiations.

Because most of the work at the Congress was done by these five powers (along with, on some issues, the representatives of Spain, Portugal, and Sweden, and on German issues, of Hanover, Bavaria, and Württemberg), most of the delegations had nothing much to do at the Congress, and the host, Emperor Francis of Austria held lavish entertainments to keep them occupied. This led to the Prince de Ligne's famous comment that "le Congrès ne marche pas ; il danse." (The Congress does not walk; it dances.)

Waterloo campaign

The return to Paris of Napoleon Bonaparte from forced exile on the island of Elba interrupted the congress. For the Hundred Days between 20 March 1815, the date on which Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in Paris and 28 June 1815, the date of the restoration of King Louis XVIII the representatives in Vienna waited on the outcome of military force.

On 13 March, six days before Napoleon reached Paris, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared him an outlaw; four days later the United Kingdom, Russia, Austria and Prussia bound themselves to put 150,000 men each into the field to end his rule.

Napoleon knew that, once his attempts at dissuading one or more of the allies from invading France had failed, his only chance of remaining in power was to attack before the Allies put together an overwhelming force. If he could destroy the existing Allied forces in Belgium before they were reinforced, he might be able to drive the British back to the sea and knock the Prussians out of the war. This was a successful strategy he had used many times before.

The attempt ended on June 18 at the Battle of Waterloo where a combined allied army decisively defeated the French army commanded by Napoleon. The allies pursued the French army back to Paris, restored Louis XVIII to the French throne and exiled Napoleon to the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena.

Territorial changes

  • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon
  • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw (Poland)
  • Prussia was given three fifths of Saxony, parts of Poland, and the Rhineland
  • A Germanic Confederation of 39 states (including Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under Austrian rule
  • Austria was given back territory it had lost recently, plus more in Germany and Italy
  • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic and the Austrian Netherlands to rule
  • Norway and Sweden were joined
  • The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed
  • Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom
  • Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia
  • Sardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa
  • The Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies
  • The Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise
  • The slave trade was condemned (at British urging)
  • Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers

Polish-Saxon crisis

The most contentious subject at the Congress was the so-called Polish-Saxon Crisis. The Russians and Prussians proposed a deal in which much of the Prussian and Austrian shares of the partitions of Poland would go to Russia, which would create an independent Polish Kingdom in personal union with Russia with Alexander as king. In exchange, the Prussians would receive as compensation all of Saxony, whose King was a gayot considered to have forfeited his throne because he had not abandoned Napoleon soon enough. The Austrians, French, and British did not approve of this plan, and, at the inspiration of Talleyrand, signed a secret treaty on January 3, 1815, agreeing to go to war, if necessary, to prevent the Russo-Prussian plan from coming to accomplishment

Although none of the three powers was particularly ready for war, the Russians did not call the bluff, and an amicable settlement was soon worked out, by which Russia received most of the Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw as a "Kingdom of Poland" (called Congress Poland), but did not receive the district of Poznan (Grand Duchy of Poznan), which was given to Prussia, nor Kraków, which became a free city. Prussia received 40% of Saxony (later known as the province of Saxony), with the remainder returned to King Frederick Augustus I (kingdom of Saxony).

Other changes

The Congress's principal results, apart from its confirmation of France's loss of the territories annexed in 1795 - 1810, which had already been settled by the Peace of Paris, were the enlargement of Russia, (which gained most of the Duchy of Warsaw) and Prussia, which acquired Westphalia and the northern Rhineland. The consolidation of Germany from the nearly 300 states of the Holy Roman Empire (dissolved in 1806) into a much more manageable thirty-nine states was confirmed. These states were formed into a loose German Confederation under the leadership of Prussia and Austria.

Representatives at the Congress agreed to numerous other territorial changes. Norway was transferred from Denmark to Sweden. Austria gained Lombardy-Venetia in Northern Italy, while much of the rest of North-Central Italy went to Habsburg dynasts (The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena, and the Duchy of Parma). The Pope was restored to the Papal States. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored to its mainland possessions, and also gained control of the Republic of Genoa. In Southern Italy, Napoleon's brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, was originally allowed to retain his Kingdom of Naples, but following his support of Napoleon in the Hundred Days, he was deposed, and the Bourbon Ferdinand IV was restored to the throne.

A large United Kingdom of the Netherlands was created for the Prince of Orange, including both the old United Provinces and the formerly Austrian-ruled territories in the Southern Netherlands.

There were other, less important territorial adjustments, including significant territorial gains for the German Kingdoms of Hanover (which gained East Frisia from Prussia and various other territories in Northwest Germany) and Bavaria (which gained the Rhenish Palatinate and territories in Franconia). The Duchy of Lauenburg was transferred from Hanover to Denmark, and Swedish Pomerania was annexed by Prussia. Switzerland was enlarged, and Swiss neutrality was guaranteed

The treaty also recognized Portuguese rights to Olivenza, but these were ignored, and the area remained under Spanish control.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland received parts of the West Indies at the expense of the Netherlands and Spain and kept the former Dutch colonies of Ceylon and the Cape Colony, and also kept Malta and Helgoland. Under the Treaty of Paris Britain obtained the protectorate over the United States of the Ionian Islands and the Seychelles.

oNE MUST NOT FORGET HOW sexually orientated these meetings were. group orgys happened 24/7 whcih explains why they chose to unite all the germanic states. even a crack whore could see that would lead to problems. talleyrand was know for his womanizing and was redported to catching 5 VD'S at this one congress

Holy Alliance

Not directly a part of the Congress, but associated with it, was the Holy Alliance, the brainchild of Alexander, in which the various sovereigns of Europe agreed to abide by Christian principles. Although widely derided by most of the statesmen at the Congress (Castlereagh called it "a piece of sublime mysticism and nonsense" and Metternich a "loud-sounding nothing"), all of Europe's sovereigns agreed to it, except for the Pope, who would not form such an agreement with so many heretics; the Sultan, who was not particularly interested in Christian principles; and the Prince-Regent of the United Kingdom, who could not agree to such a treaty without ministerial involvement (he did sign on in his role as Regent of Hanover). Later, the Holy Alliance became associated with the forces of reaction in Europe, and particularly with the policies of Metternich.

The countries involved with the Congress also agreed to meet at intervals under Article VI:

"To secure the execution of the present Treaty and to consolidate the connections which at the present moment so closely unite the Four Sovereigns for the happiness of the world they have agreed to renew their Meetings at fixed periods... for the consideration of measures for the repose and prosperity of Nations and for the maintenance of the Peace of Europe"

This led to the establishment of the Congress system and the subsequent congresses.

Later criticism

The Congress of Vienna was frequently criticized by 19th century and more recent historians for ignoring national and liberal impulses, and for imposing a stifling reaction on the continent. Indeed, this criticism was already voiced by the Whig opposition in the UK as soon as the Congress had concluded. The Congress of Vienna was an integral part in what became known as The Conservative Order in which peace and stability were traded for the liberties and civil rights associated with the French Revolution.

In the twentieth century, though, many historians have come to admire the work of the statesmen at the Congress, whose work, it was said, had prevented another European general war for nearly a hundred years (1818-1914). Among these is Henry Kissinger, whose doctoral dissertation was on the Congress of Vienna.

Further reading

  • Henry Kissinger, A World Restored: Metternich, Castlereagh and the Problems of Peace, 1812-1822 (derived from his doctoral dissertation)
  • Enno Kraehe, Metternich's German Policy, Vol. 2: The Congress of Vienna, 1814-1815
  • Harold Nicolson, The Congress of Vienna: A Study in Allied Unity: 1812-1822.
  • Paul Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848
  • Sir Charles Webster, The Foreign Policy of Castlereagh 1812-1815: Britain and the Reconstruction of Europe

Other meanings

Congress of Vienna is also the title of an early nineteenth century waltz.

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