List of notable tropical cyclones

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This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability.

Contents

North Atlantic basin

Retired names

Hurricane names are retired due to the notoriety of the storm to which they are attached (after a nation impacted by the storm lobbies the World Meteorological Organization). See naming of tropical cyclones.

The background color behind the name indicates its strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale at its strongest landfall.

Tropical depression Tropical storm Category 1 hurricane Category 2 hurricane Category 3 hurricane Category 4 hurricane Category 5 hurricane

See also Category:Retired Atlantic hurricanes.

Name Year Location Deaths Damage (2005 $US)
Carol 1954 New England 60 $4.1 billion
Edna 1954 New England 20 $250 million
Hazel 1954 Haiti, South Carolina northward to Ontario 600 - 1,200 $3-5 billion
Connie 1955 North Carolina  ? Extensive flooding, $3.3 billion
Diane 1955 North Carolina 200 $7 billion
Ione 1955 North Carolina 7 $600 million
Janet 1955 Grenada and Belize 500+ $320 million
Audrey 1957 Texas and Louisiana 390+ $1 billion
Gracie 1959 South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia 22 $90 million
Donna 1960 Impacted every U.S. state on the east coast 364 $3.3 billion
Carla 1961 Texas (as far inland as Dallas) 46 $2.4 billion
Hattie 1961 British Honduras 400 Destroyed Belize City; $370 million
Flora 1963 Haiti and Cuba 7,193 $3.2 billion
Cleo 1964 Guadeloupe and Hispaniola; Miami, Florida 217 in the Caribbean and US $1.2 billion
Dora 1964 Jacksonville, Florida 1 $2 billion. First-ever hurricane to hit the First Coast of Florida.
Hilda 1964 New Orleans, Louisiana 38 $750 million
Betsy 1965 Louisiana 76 $10-12 billion
Inez 1966 Jamaica, Haiti, Cuba and Mexico 990 official, 1,000+ estimated $1.2 billion
Beulah 1967 Texas 59 Dropped almost 30 inches of rain on Beeville, Texas, $1.2 billion
Camille 1969 U.S. Gulf Coast 256 Obliterated the Mississippi coast, $9.2 billion
Celia 1970 Corpus Christi, Texas 16 $2.3 billion
Agnes 1972 United States 122 $12 billion
Carmen 1974 United States 4 $620 million
Fifi 1974 Honduras 6,000+ $20 billion
Eloise 1975 Hispaniola to Florida and northwards 80 $2.1 billion
Anita 1977 Struck Mexico near the Texas border 10  ?
David 1979 Dominican Republic and Dominica 2,068+ $900 million+
Frederic 1979 U.S. Gulf coast 5 $4-8 billion
Allen 1980 Caribbean and South Texas 236 $2.6 billion
Alicia 1983 Struck Galveston, Texas and Houston 21 $3.8 billion damage
Elena 1985 Florida and Mississippi 4 $2.7 billion
Gloria 1985 US Eastern Seaboard,New York's Long Island 8 $1.6 billion
Gilbert 1988 Jamaica, Mexico 318 Second strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere; $7-9 billion
Joan 1988 Nicaragua, Colombia; other countries 216 $2-3 billion
Hugo 1989 Carolinas, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (locale of primary damage) 49 $15 billion
Diana 1990 Mexico 96  ?
Klaus 1990 Lesser Antilles, Georgia 11 Marco formed from the remnants of Klaus and burst a dam in Georgia; $110 million combined
Bob 1991 New England; Canadian Maritimes 18 $2.8 billion
Andrew 1992 south Florida, Louisiana 62 $45 billion — costliest American natural disaster prior to Katrina
Luis 1995 St. Martin, Antigua, Barbuda, and the British Virgin Islands 17 $3.5 billion
Marilyn 1995 St. Thomas 8 $2 billion
Opal 1995 Guatemala, Mexico and the Florida Panhandle 59 $5 billion
Roxanne 1995 Mexico 14 $2 billion
Cesar 1996 Nicaragua, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela 51 Widespread flooding
Fran 1996 Cape Fear, North Carolina 34 $4.6 billion
Hortense 1996 Leeward Islands 42 heavy damage
Georges 1998 Hispaniola, Mississippi 602 $7-9 billion
Mitch 1998 Honduras and neighboring countries 18,277 (9,086 confirmed, 9,191 missing: more than any storm in over 200 years) $5 billion+
Floyd 1999 Eastern North Carolina; New Jersey 77 in multiple states $6 billion
Lenny 1999 Lesser Antilles, Colombia 17 $330 million+
Keith 2000 Belize, Central America 24 $225 million
Allison 2001 Texas 41 $5.5 billion - Extensive flooding;
Iris 2001 Belize 31-50 $70 million+
Michelle 2001 Honduras, Belize, Cuba and Jamaica 17  ?
Isidore 2002 Yucatan and the United States 7 $330 million
Lili 2002 St. Vincent, Jamaica and Louisiana 13 $900 million
Fabian 2003 Bermuda 8 $330 million+
Isabel 2003 Much of the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States 50 $3.6 billion
Juan 2003 Atlantic Canada 8 First hurricane to hit the area in over 110 years; $300 million
Charley 2004 Florida 35 $14 billion
Frances 2004 Bahamas; central Florida 49 $9 billion
Ivan 2004 Grenada; Cayman Islands; Jamaica and the eastern United States 124 $16-18 billion
Jeanne 2004 Haiti, the Dominican Republic and central Florida 3,037 (Haiti), 4 direct in US $6.9 billion

Retired names from 2005 season will be announced by the WMO in the spring of 2006. Never have more than four names been retired after a season, and for this season, that mark will almost certainly be tied or, more likely, broken.

Sources

Listed by death toll

This is a list of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes since records began in 1851. Katrina and Stan aren't yet added to this list because the official death tolls will be announced at the end of the hurricane season. Katrina's confirmed death toll in Louisiana and Mississippi alone as of the end of September 2005 had exceeded Hurricane Gordon, and Stan's confirmed death toll also passed that of Hurricane Gordon on October 11.

Deaths Name Year
9086 – 18,277 Hurricane Mitch 1998
8000 – 12,000 Galveston Hurricane 1900
8000 – 10,000 Hurricane Fifi 1974
2000 – 8000 Dominican Republic Hurricane 1930
7200 Hurricane Flora 1963
3433 Hurricane San Ciriaco 1899
3411 Lake Okeechobee Hurricane 1928
2500 – 3107 Cuba Hurricane of 1932 1932
3037 Hurricane Jeanne 2004
2000 – 3000 Yucatan Hurricane of 1934 1934
1500 – 2500 Belize Hurricane of 1931 1931
2150 Caribbean Hurricane of 1935 1935
2060 Hurricane David 1979
2000 Straits of Florida Hurricane 1870
2000 'Chenier Caminada' Hurricane 1893
1000 – 2000 Sea Islands Hurricane 1893
1500 Mexico Hurricane 1909
1145 Hurricane Gordon 1994
1000 Hurricane Inez 1966
600 – 1200 Hurricane Hazel 1954

Listed by cost (United States only)

There are several ways to express the monetary cost of a hurricane, by inflation adjusted cost, cost at the time, and cost if the hurricane was to strike today. [1][2]

Also, note Hurricane Katrina will very likely be at or near the top of these lists, with estimates ranging from $100 to $200 billion. Hurricane Wilma will likely appear near the top as well with insured estimates (generally considered to be half of the total damage) around $9 billion, and Hurricane Rita will likely appear in the middle, estimated at $8 billion; please refrain from adding them to this ranking.

Care should be taken not to confuse "economic impact" estimates (often used for modern hurricanes like Katrina) with damage costs; it is the latter that are included in this list (and in all hurricane articles).

Note that these charts are only based on damage in the US; the total in many of these storms is higher due to damage in the Caribbean, Central America, Mexico or Canada.

Listed by 2004 inflation adjusted cost

Cost
(billions)
Name Year
$43.7 Hurricane Andrew 1992
$15.0 Hurricane Charley 2004
$14.2 Hurricane Ivan 2004
$12.3 Hurricane Hugo 1989
$11.3 Hurricane Agnes 1972
$10.8 Hurricane Betsy 1965
$8.9 Hurricane Frances 2004
$8.9 Hurricane Camille 1969
$7.0 Hurricane Diane 1955
$6.9 Hurricane Jeanne 2004
$6.3 Hurricane Frederic 1979
$6.0 Great New England Hurricane of 1938 1938
$5.8 Tropical Storm Allison 2001
$5.8 Hurricane Floyd 1999
$5.4 Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944 1944
$4.5 Hurricane Fran 1996
$4.4 Hurricane Alicia 1983
$4.3 Hurricane Opal 1995
$3.9 Hurricane Carol 1954
$3.6 Hurricane Isabel 2003
$3.1 Hurricane Juan 1985
$3.0 Hurricane Donna 1960
$2.8 Hurricane Celia 1970
$2.6 Hurricane Bob 1991
$2.6 Hurricane Elena 1985
$2.4 Hurricane Carla 1961
$2.1 Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 1926
$2.0 Hurricane Eloise 1975
$2.0 Galveston Hurricane of 1915 1915
$2.0 Hurricane Dora 1964

Note that this does not include recent hurricanes such as Katrina. Damage is still being assessed and no definitive cost has been released.

Listed by cost at the time

Cost
(billions)
Name Year
$26.5 Hurricane Andrew 1992
$15.0 Hurricane Charley 2004
$14.2 Hurricane Ivan 2004
$8.9 Hurricane Frances 2004
$7.0 Hurricane Hugo 1989
$6.9 Hurricane Jeanne 2004
$5.0 Tropical Storm Allison 2001
$4.5 Hurricane Floyd 1999
$3.37 Hurricane Isabel 2003
$3.2 Hurricane Fran 1996
$3.0 Hurricane Opal 1995
$2.3 Hurricane Frederic 1979
$2.1 Hurricane Agnes 1972
$2.0 Hurricane Alicia 1983
$1.5 Hurricane Bob 1991
$1.5 Hurricane Juan 1985
$1.42 Hurricane Camille 1969
$1.42 Hurricane Betsy 1965
$1.25 Hurricane Elena 1985
$1.155 Hurricane Georges 1998
$0.9 Hurricane Gloria 1985
$0.86 Hurricane Lili 2002
$0.83 Hurricane Diane 1955
$0.72 Hurricane Bonnie 1998
$0.70 Hurricane Erin 1995
$0.50 Tropical Storm Allison 1989
$0.50 Tropical Storm Alberto 1994
$0.50 Tropical Storm Frances 1998
$0.49 Hurricane Eloise 1975
$0.46 Hurricane Carol 1954

Listed by wealth normalization for 2003

This list adjusted for 2003 inflation and wealth normalization, which is basically an estimation of what the hurricane would cost if it struck today. Estimates have been made for hurricanes that occured after 2003.

Cost
(billions)
Name Year
$98.0 Great Miami Hurricane 1926
$44.9 Hurricane Andrew 1992
$36.1 Galveston Hurricane of 1900 1900
$30.6 Galveston Hurricane of 1915 1915
$22.1 South Florida Hurricane of 1944 1944
$22.5 Great New England Hurricane of 1938 1938
$18.7 Lake Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 1928
$16.9 Hurricane Betsy 1965
$16.3 Hurricane Donna 1960
$15.0 Hurricane Charley 2004
$14.9 Hurricane Camille 1969
$14.5 Hurricane Agnes 1972
$14.2 Hurricane Ivan 2004
$13.9 Hurricane Diane 1955
$12.7 Hurricane Hugo 1989
$12.3 Hurricane Carol 1954
$11.3 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane of 1947 1947
$9.6 Hurricane Carla 1961
$9.5 Hurricane Hazel 1954
$8.9 Hurricane Frances 2004
$8.8 Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944 1944
$8.6 South Florida Hurricane of 1945 1945
$8.5 Hurricane Frederic 1979
$7.9 South Florida Hurricane of 1949 1949
$7.2 South Texas Hurricane of 1919 1919
$6.9 Hurricane Jeanne 2004
$5.5 Hurricane Alicia 1983
$5.4 Tropical Storm Allison 2001
$5.3 Hurricane Floyd 1999
$4.5 Hurricane Celia 1970

Listed by duration

Storms which have lived longer than twenty days:

Duration
(days)
Name Date
28 Hurricane San Ciriaco August 1899
27.25 Hurricane Ginger September 1971
26 Hurricane Faith August 1966
24.75 Hurricane Inga September 1969
22 Hurricane Kyle September 2002
22 Hurricane Ivan September 2004
20.75 Storm 9 September 1893
20.75 Hurricane Carrie September 1957
20.50 Hurricane Alberto August 2000
20.25 Hurricane Inez September 1966

Source: NOAA [3], [4] NHC [5]

Listed by number of tornadoes spawned

Count Name Year
123 Hurricane Frances 2004
117 Hurricane Ivan 2004
115 Hurricane Beulah 1967
36 Hurricane Katrina 2005
29 Hurricane Allen 1980
29 Hurricane Gilbert 1988
23 Hurricane Alicia 1983
22 Hurricane Rita 2005
8 Hurricane Carla 1961
8 Hurricane Celia 1970

Listed by seasonal activity

A hurricane with a peak intensity of category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is classified as major.

Listed by most total storms: Post-1900

Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Notes
Minor Major
23 2005 10 6 7 Season ends November 30, 2005
21 1933 11 5 5
19 1995 8 6 5
18 1969 5 7 5 1 subtropical storm
16 1936 9 6 1
16 2003 9 4 3
15 2000 6 5 3 1 subtropical storm
15 2001 6 5 4
15 2004 5 3 6 1 subtropical storm
14 1953 8 2 4
14 1990 6 7 1
14 1998 4 7 3
13 1949 6 4 3
13 1950 2 3 8
13 1971 7 5 1
13 1984 7 4 1 1 subtropical storm
13 1996 4 3 6
12 1901 7 5 0
12 1955 3 3 6
12 1964 6 0 6
12 1978 6 3 2 1 subtropical storm
12 1981 4 4 3 1 subtropical storm
12 1988 7 2 3
12 1999 4 3 5
12 2002 8 2 2

Listed by most total storms: Pre-1900

Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes
Minor Major
19 1887 8 9 2
12 1878 2 8 2
12 1886 2 6 4
12 1893 2 5 5

Listed by fewest total storms

Most storm seasons on this list predate satellite weather tracking, so there could have potentially been more, unrecorded storms. Seasons prior to 1900 are not included due to lack of accurate data for the period.

Total
storms
Year Tropical
storms
Hurricanes
Minor Major
1 1914 1 0 0
2 1925 1 1 0
2 1930 0 1 1
3 1917 1 0 2
3 1919 2 0 1
3 1929 0 2 1
4 1911 1 3 0
4 1913 1 3 0
4 1920 0 4 0
4 1922 2 1 1
4 1983 1 2 1

Notable Canadian hurricanes

Unnamed but historically significant

Lesser known but significant hurricanes

Off-season storms

Category 5 hurricanes

Becoming a Category 5 (sustained windspeeds greater than 155 mph) is achieved on a regular basis in the Western Pacific but is rare in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific. Since 1851, only 28 Atlantic hurricanes are known to have reached Category 5 and only nine made landfall while at this intensity. Only three times have more than one Category 5 formed in the same season: two in 1960 and 1961, and three in 2005.

  • *Made landfall as a Category 5
  • **Originally classified as a Category 4 landfall, but later upgraded to Category 5 at landfall after a 2002 review of damage and windspeed data.

See also the List of Category 5 Atlantic Hurricanes and Category:Category 5 hurricanes.

Note:Hurricane Emily of 2005 may have been Category 5 at its peak intensity.

Listed by intensity


Top ten most intense Atlantic hurricanes since measurements began

Hurricane intensity is measured solely by central pressure; source: NOAA

North Atlantic Landfall U.S.
Rank Hurricane Year Minimum pressure
recorded
mbar (hPa)
Rank Hurricane Year Minimum pressure
at landfall
mbar (hPa)
1 Wilma 2005 882 1 Labor Day 1935 892
2 Gilbert 1988 888 2 Camille 1969 909
3 Labor Day 1935 892 3 Katrina 2005 918
4 Rita 2005 897 4 Andrew 1992 922
5 Allen 1980 899 5 Indianola 1886 925
6 Katrina 2005 902 6 Florida Keys 1919 927
7 Camille 1969 905 7 Okeechobee 1928 929
8 Mitch 1998 905 8 Donna 1960 930
9 Ivan 2004 910 9 New Orleans 1915 931
10 Janet 1955 914 10 Carla 1961 931
Based on data from: The Weather Channel Based on data from: U.S. National Hurricane Center

East Atlantic

  • 2005's Hurricane Vince, a Category 1 hurricane that made landfall as a tropical storm in Spain, the first tropical cyclone recorded to do so.

South Atlantic basin

Tropical cyclones rarely form in the South Atlantic Basin. Only three South Atlantic tropical cyclones in the area have been confirmed.

Eastern Pacific basin

Retired names

See also Category:Retired Pacific hurricanes.

  • Fico, 1978 - Hawaii's Big Island pounded with 30 foot waves doing "considerable damage" to beachfront homes there.[6]
  • Knut‡, 1987
  • Iva, 1988
  • Fefa, 1991 - Flash-flooded the Big Island of Hawaii.
  • Ismael, 1995 - Killed 105 people in Mexico.
  • Pauline, 1997 - 230+ people killed in Mexico.
  • Kenna, 2002 - Killed 4 people and caused $5 million in insured damage. This figure does not include damages from the state of San Blas, where 80-90% of homes were destroyed or severly damaged. Total damages were probably over $100 million.

Additionally, Adolph and Israel were removed during and after the 2001 season due to political sensitivities.

Unnamed

Longest-lived Eastern Pacific storm

  • John, 1994, lasted 31 days

Deadliest East Pacific Storms

  1. Unnamed, 1959: 1800+ deaths
  2. Hurricane Paul, 1982: 1000+
  3. Hurricane Liza, 1976: 600+ deaths
  4. Hurricane Pauline, 1997: 230–400 deaths
  5. Hurricane Ismael, 1995: 105 deaths
  6. 1939 Long Beach Tropical Storm, 1939: 45 deaths

Most Active East Pacific Seasons

  1. 1992 season 24 + 3 systems (10–6–8) + (1–0–2)
  2. 1985 season 22 + 1 systems (10–4–8) + (0–1–0)
  3. 1983 season 21 + 0 systems (9–4–8)
  4. 1990 season 20 + 1 systems (4–10–6) + (1–0–0)
  5. 1982 season 19 + 4 systems (8–6–5) + (3–1–0)
  • Note: East Pacific total + Central Pacific total
  • Number Notation: East Pacific (Tropical Storm, (Category 1/2) Hurricane, Major Hurricane) + Central Pacific (Tropical Storm, (Category 1/2) Hurricane, Major Hurricane)

Least Active East Pacific Seasons

This excludes seasons before 1966. Before reliable satellite observations began that year, the number of East Pacific hurricanes was badly underestimated.

  1. 1977 season 8 + 0 systems (4–4–0)
  2. 1996 season 9 + 0 systems (4–3–2)
  3. 1999 season 9 + 0 systems (3–4–2)
  4. 1969 season 10 + 0 systems (6–4–0)
  5. 1995 season 10 + 0 systems (3–4–3)
  6. 1979 season 10 + 0 systems (4–2–4)
  • Number Notation: East Pacific (Tropical Storm, (Category 1/2) Hurricane, Major Hurricane) + Central Pacific (Tropical Storm, (Category 1/2) Hurricane, Major Hurricane)

Central Pacific basin

Retired names

  • Iwa, 1982, Hawaii - passed within 25 miles of Kauai, causing USD $200 million in damages.
  • Iniki, 1992, Hawaii - passed directly over Kauai, killing 6 people and causing over USD $3.5 billion in damages.

Unnamed

Western Pacific basin

Named

Unnamed

Northern Indian Ocean

This region has had some of the world's deadliest cyclones, but there is a dearth of organized information about them.

South Pacific Ocean

South Indian Ocean

Australian tropical cyclones

See History - Australia's worst cyclone disasters (from Queensland Government State Disaster Management Group). See also Australian Bureau of Meteorology - Severe Weather Everts

Most intense storms on record

Rank Name Pressure Location Year
1 Typhoon Tip 870 mbar Western Pacific 1979
2 Typhoon Gay 872 mbar Western Pacific 1992*
3 Typhoon Ivan 872 mbar Western Pacific 1997*
4 Typhoon Joan 872 mbar Western Pacific 1997*
5 Typhoon Keith 872 mbar Western Pacific 1997*
6 Typhoon Zeb 872 mbar Western Pacific 1998*
7 Typhoon June 875 mbar Western Pacific 1975
8 Typhoon Forrest 876 mbar Western Pacific 1983
9 Typhoon Ida 877 mbar Western Pacific 1958
10 Typhoon Nora 877 mbar Western Pacific 1973
11 Typhoon Rita 878 mbar Western Pacific 1978
12 Typhoon Yvette 878 mbar Western Pacific 1991*
13 Typhoon Damrey 878 mbar Western Pacific 2000*
14 Typhoon Vanessa 879 mbar Western Pacific 1984
15 Typhoon Angela 879 mbar Western Pacific 1995*
16 Typhoon Faxai 879 mbar Western Pacific 2001*
17 Cyclone Zoe 879 mbar South Pacific 2002**
18 Typhoon Chaba 879 mbar Western Pacific 2004*
19 Typhoon Violet 882 mbar Western Pacific 1961
20 Hurricane Wilma 882 mbar Atlantic 2005
21 Typhoon Irma 884 mbar Western Pacific 1971
22 Typhoon Mike 885 mbar Western Pacific 1990*
23 Typhoon Yuri 885 mbar Western Pacific 1991*
24 Typhoon Maemi 885 mbar Western Pacific 2003*
25 Typhoon Dianmu 885 mbar Western Pacific 2004*
26 Unnamed typhoon of 1927 887 mbar Western Pacific 1927
27 Typhoon Judy 887 mbar Western Pacific 1979
28 Typhoon Nancy 888 mbar Western Pacific 1961
29 Typhoon Abby 888 mbar Western Pacific 1983
30 Hurricane Gilbert 888 mbar Atlantic 1988
31 Labor Day Hurricane 892 mbar Atlantic 1935
32 Hurricane Rita 897 mbar Atlantic 2005
33 Hurricane Allen 899 mbar Atlantic 1980
34 Hurricane Linda 902 mbar Eastern Pacific 1997
35 Hurricane Katrina 902 mbar Atlantic 2005
36 Hurricane Camille 905 mbar Atlantic 1969
37 Hurricane Mitch 905 mbar Atlantic 1998
38 Hurricane Ivan 910 mbar Atlantic 2004
39 Hurricane Kenna 913 mbar Eastern Pacific 2002

Notes:

  • *Minimum central pressure of these storms was estimated based on satellite data, rather than directly measured.
  • **Estimated value. RSMC Fiji estimated 890 mbar.

This list includes Western Pacific storms with pressure of less than 890 mb and Atlantic and Eastern Pacific storms with pressure of less than 915 mb. Additional Western Pacific storms with pressure over 895 mb have been recorded, but are neither exceptional for that basin nor all reliably measured. As for Indian Ocean storms, pressure readings are too scarce to make a list reliable.

Size extremes

The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Tropical Cyclone Tracy, and the United States.
The relative sizes of Typhoon Tip, Tropical Cyclone Tracy, and the United States.
  • Typhoon Tip is the largest tropical cyclone on record at 1350 miles (2170 km) wide, October (1979)
  • Cyclone Tracy is the smallest tropical cyclone on record at 30 miles (48 km) wide, December (1974)

Highest storm surge

Little information is available about the storm surge of tropical cyclones around the world. The below are three powerful hurricanes which had very high storm surges.

Notes

See also

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